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只有1%的用户对网站创造了新内容,而其他99%都是潜伏者

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2015-05-14 22:57:34

江大可

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在互联网文化中,1%规则是互联网社区参与中首屈一指的规则,陈述的是只有1%的用户对网站积极地创造了新内容,而其他99%都是潜伏者。

它的一个变种是“90–9–1规则”(有时也表现为89:10:1),这描述了在一个像维基一样的合作网站中,90%的社区参与者只是浏览内容,9%的参与者编辑内容,1%的参与者积极地创造新内容。

这两个规则可以与已知信息科学中的类似规则相对比,如被称为帕累托理论的80/20规则,即组织中的20%将产生80%活跃度,但活跃度是可以被定义的。

定义

1%规则表明在互联网上创造内容的人数可以用实际浏览该内容的人数的1%(或者更少)来近似表示。例如,对于在论坛上发布信息的每个人,一般有大约99个其他人只是浏览该论坛而不发布信息。这个术语是由作者和博主Ben McConnell和Jackie Huba创作,尽管早前相同内容的参考信息并不使用这个名字。

关于在线活动的术语隐身和隐身不语(lurk和lurking),用来表示那些在线的观察者,而不参与社区中其他的活动,该术语首次被经验丰富的报刊记者,P Tomi Austin, 大约于1990年首次提出,当她在聊天室出现,被他人注意到,而问起不参与聊天的原因。不断有人询问她的身份和她不参与聊天的原因。显然,礼节是在进入聊天室/站点时问候其他人。在那时,(在她30岁左右,和平均年龄在十几岁和二十几岁之间的用户网上冲浪时),她仅仅用“Bilbo”表示自己,她解释说她是一个成熟的、但会使用计算机的用户、对于聊天是新手,习惯用lurk,或者lurking来使自己熟悉聊天文化、礼节和她登录的那些站点。在某些情况下,她需要解释她所创造的词语“lurking”,因为这个词对于在线社区是新的,但其他人很快就明白了她的意思。据她所知,这些词在那之前还没被用过,显然没有关于这个词更早的参考信息。看起来在20世纪早期之前,这个词并没有归属。

例如,在2005年由Akil N Awan主持的关于激进宗教主义者论坛的调查表明,87%的论坛用户从来不在论坛上发帖,13%的人发了至少1帖,5%的人发了50帖以上,只有1%的人发了500条以上的帖子。

这条规则的变种“90-9-1”规则表明在那些用户既可以创建又能编辑内容的网站上,1%的用户创建条目,9%的用户修改编辑条目,而90%的人只是看看而已。

具体的比例与具体的案例相关。比如,如果一个论坛将发帖作为准入条件,那么积极参与的人就会大于1%,但是发帖的人依然只是用户中的少数。这在Michael Wu的研究中得到了证实,他用经济学的手段分析了参与度的差异,研究中涉及了上百个不同行业、不同参与者类型和不同社区主题的论坛。

1%规则经常在互联网应用中被误解,但其对于任何单一而不是全部的网络社区都有效。这就是为什么有些时候1%规则看上去对许多论坛都很适用,但是将他们都摆在一起,就会看到另一番景象。后一种情况中的参与比例还不明确而且很容易变化,但是许多研究者和专家都对参与者总数做出了预测。Holly Goodier与BBC在2012年末合作进行的研究中指出只有23%(而不是90%)的人是纯粹的潜水者,而17%的人是积极参与者。而几年以前,社会学家Eszter Hargittai和Gina Walejko在芝加哥学生中进行抽样调查,发现60%的人进行着各种形式的内容创建。

参与不等

相似的概念曾经被AT&T实验室的Will Hill提出过,并被Jakob Nielsen所引用。这是最早的有关网络中“参与不等”的研究。这个术语在2006年重新被公众所注意到,它在一篇有关市场的博文中被严格量化的提出。

英语原文:

In Internet culture, the 1% rule is a rule of thumb pertaining to participation in an internet community, stating that only 1% of the users of a website actively create new content, while the other 99% of the participants only lurk.

A variant is the “90–9–1 principle” (sometimes also presented as the 89:10:1 ratio), which states that in a collaborative website such as a wiki, 90% of the participants of a community only view content, 9% of the participants edit content, and 1% of the participants actively create new content.

Both can be compared with the similar rules known to information science, such as the 80/20 rule known as the Pareto principle, that 20 percent of a group will produce 80 percent of the activity, however the activity may be defined.

Definition

The 1% rule states that the number of people who create content on the Internet represents approximately 1% (or less) of the people actually viewing that content. For example, for every person who posts on a forum, generally about 99 other people are viewing that forum but not posting. The term was coined by authors and bloggers Ben McConnell and Jackie Huba, although earlier references to the same concept did not use this name.

The terms lurk and lurking, in reference to online activity, are used to refer to online observation without engaging others in the community, and were first used by veteran print journalist, P Tomi Austin, circa 1990, when her presence was noticed by other users in chat rooms, who queried her reasons for not engaging in chat. There were repeated inquiries about her identity and her refusal to engage in chat. The etiquette was, apparently, to greet other users upon entry into the chat rooms/sites. At the time, (then in her 30s, surfing among users averaging in their teens and 20s) she was only identified as “Bilbo”, she explained that she was a mature, but computer-literate, user and novice to chat, and preferred to lurk, or was lurking to familiarize herself with the chat culture, etiquette, and the sites to which she had logged on. In some instances, she needed to explain her coinage of the term “lurking”, as the term was new to the online community, but others quickly understood her meaning. To her knowledge, the terms had not been used prior to that period, and there appears to be no earlier dated reference to the coinage. There appears to be no attribution to the coinage that pre-dates the early 1990s.

For example, a large 2005 study of radical Jihadist forums by Akil N Awan found 87% of users had never posted on the forums, 13% had posted at least once, 5% had posted 50 or more times, and only 1% had posted 500 or more times.

The “90–9–1″ version of this rule states that for websites where users can both create and edit content, 1% of people create content, 9% edit or modify that content, and 90% view the content without contributing.

The actual percentage is likely to vary depending upon the subject matter. For example, if a forum requires content submissions as a condition of entry, the percentage of people who participate will probably be significantly higher than one percent, but the content producers will still be a minority of users. This is validated in a study conducted by Michael Wu, who uses economics techniques to analyze the participation inequality across hundreds of communities segmented by industry, audience type, and community focus.

The 1% rule is often misunderstood to apply to the Internet in general, but it applies more specifically to any given Internet community. It is for this reason that one can see evidence for the 1% principle on many websites, but aggregated together one can see a different distribution. This latter distribution is still unknown and likely to shift, but various researchers and pundits have speculated on how to characterize the sum total of participation. Holly Goodier, in conjunction with the BBC presented research in late 2012 suggesting that only 23 percent of the population (rather than 90 percent) could properly be classified as lurkers, while 17% of the population could be classified as intense contributors of content. Several years prior, communication scholars Eszter Hargittai and Gina Walejko reported on a sample of students from Chicago where 60 percent of the sample created content in some form.

Participation inequality

A similar concept was introduced by Will Hill of AT&T Laboratories and later cited by Jakob Nielsen; this was the earliest known reference to the term “participation inequality” in an online context.[9] The term regained public attention in 2006 when it was used in a strictly quantitative context within a blog entry on the topic of marketing.

译者:DrZ, Garfielt, Ley,原文标题:1% rule (Internet culture)

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